Fat loss is the first step to body transformation! Because fat has an absolute relationship with hormones and inflammation, as long as body fat is high, insulin sensitivity will be relatively low, which will affect muscle gain and even fat loss. So no matter which stage of training, it is closely related to diet. Therefore, generally speaking, you should eat "less" when reducing, eat "enough" when increasing, and eat "right" when maintaining.

The first thing you need to do to lose fat is control your calorie intake. How to calculate calorie intake? How many calories do we need daily? The daily calorie requirement for an adult can be calculated using the following formula:

Calories needed per day = basal metabolic rate + calories needed for activities + calories needed to digest food

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) refers to the most basic calories that a person needs to consume in a day, that is to say, the minimum amount of calories that need to be absorbed to sustain the most basic physical energy consumption of the human body in a day. It is also the minimum standard required to maintain life. This includes maintaining the activities of various organs in the body, the secretion of glands, and the normal operation of nerves and cells.

The level of the basal metabolic rate will gradually decrease with age. Generally speaking, the basal metabolic rate is quite high in infancy, decreases relatively in childhood, and stabilizes gradually in adulthood. In adulthood, the basal metabolic rate is the highest at the age of 18 to 25, but after 25, the basal metabolic rate will decline, and the rate of decline is about 5 to 10% per decade. Until we are 50 years old, the basal metabolic rate will be reduced by nearly 30%.

Based on basal metabolic rate (BMR), calorie consumption will naturally increase if the BMR is high, and if the BMR is low, calories won't be consumed and will be stored as fat in the body.

BMR was created in 1919 by Harris Benedict. However, in 1990, other scholars proposed the Mifflin-St Jeor Equation, which is more in line with modern conditions, to calculate the basal metabolic rate. The formula is also simpler and easier to calculate.

Mifflin-St Jeor Equation formula:

● Male: Basal metabolic rate = (10x kg body weight) + (6.25x cm height) - (5x age) + 5

● Female: Basal metabolic rate = (10x kg body weight) + (6.25x cm height) - (5x age) - 161

Example: Female, 50kg, 160cm tall, 30 years old.

Basal metabolic rate: (10x50)+(6.25x160)-(5x30)-165

= 500+1000-150-165 = 1185 (calories)

The result calculated by these two formulas is the calories needed for a day when the body maintains basic operations.

When the basal metabolic rate (BMR) is high, calories will naturally be consumed, and if the BMR is low, the calories will not be consumed and will be stored as fat in the body.

About TDEE (Total Daily Energy Expenditure)

The current method used for estimating the total daily calorie consumption TDEE will first calculate the basal metabolic rate BMR. It will then multiply it by a value between 1 and 2 according to the usual activity level.

The TDEE of someone who sits at work all day or does not exercise at all is BMRx1.2. Do some light exercise 1 to 3 days a week, but if you sit for a long time, the TDEE is BMRx1.4. With the level of physical activity and amount of exercise, the higher the multiplier, the more energy consumed. For example, if an athlete needs to exercise twice a day, the TDEE is BMRx2.

Whether you want to lose fat, gain muscle, or maintain it, you must first obtain the above figures. This is before you can plan your diet and training plan effectively and scientifically. Otherwise, it will only be half the effort!

卡路里赤字 Calorie Deficit

要進行身型改造第一件事一定是減脂！ 因為脂肪跟賀爾蒙和炎症有絕對的關係，只要體脂高胰島素敏感度就會相對低，便會影響增肌，甚至不能減脂。 所以無論在那一個訓練階段，都與飲食有密切關係。 因此，一般來說，減的時候要吃得「少」，增的時候要吃得「夠」，維持的時候就要吃得「準」。

減脂第一件事就是控制卡路里攝取量。 如何計算卡路里攝取？ 究竟我們每日所需的卡路里熱量有多少？ 成人每日需要的熱量可用以下的公式計算：

每日所需的熱量＝人體基礎代謝率＋活動所需熱量＋消化食物所需的熱量

基礎代謝率

基礎代謝率 (Basal Metabolic Rate BMR) 是指一個人一天內最基本需要消耗的熱量，也就是說，維持人體一天最基本的體能消耗最少需要吸取的熱量，也是維持生命所需要的最低標準，包括了維持身體內各個器官的活動、腺體的分泌、神經及細胞的正常運作。

基礎代謝率的高低會隨著年齡的增長而逐漸下降，一般來說，嬰兒時期的基礎代謝率相當高，到了孩童時期會相對下降，而到了成人之後便會漸趨穩定。 在成年時期，18至25歲是基礎代謝率最高的時候，但25歲之後，基礎代謝率便會下降，下降速度大約是每十年5至10％，直至我們50歲時，基礎代謝率便降低了接近30%。

基礎代謝率 (BMR) 與熱量有關，所以 BMR 高的話，熱量的消耗自然多，而 BMR 低，則熱量沒法消耗，便會以脂肪的形態儲存在體內。

BMR 是1919 年由 Harris Benedict 所創。 但在1990年時，又有其他學者提出了比較符合現代人狀況的 (Mifflin-St Jeor Equation)，來計算基礎代謝率，公式也簡單、好計算得多。

Mifflin-St Jeor Equation 公式：

● 男性：基礎代謝率=(10x公斤體重)+(6.25x公分身高)-(5x年齡)+5

● 女性：基礎代謝率=(10x公斤體重)+(6.25x公分身高)-(5x年齡)-161

舉例：女性，體重50kg，身高160cm，年齡30歲。

基礎代謝率：(10x50)+(6.25x160)-(5x30)-165

= 500+1000-150-165 = 1185 (卡路里)

這兩個公式算出來的結果，就是身體維持基礎運轉時，一天所需要的卡路里。

關於每日熱量消耗 TDEE (Total Daily Energy Expenditure)

現行用來粗略估計每日總消耗熱量TDEE的方式，會先算出基礎代謝率BMR，再以依照平常的活動程度高低，乘以一個介於1到2的數值。

每天如果都是久坐上班、追劇、玩手機，甚至完全沒有運動習慣的話，其 TDEE 是由 BMRx1.2。 每週有1到3天做些輕度運動，但平時多久坐的話，TDEE 就是 BMRx1.4。 隨著身體活動程度和運動量，乘的倍率會愈高，消耗愈多能量。 像運動員一天要運動訓練兩次的話，TDEE 就是 BMRx2。

無論你是減脂、增肌或維持，都必須要先取得以上的數字，才可以有效及科學地計劃你的飲食及訓練計劃。 否則，都只會是事倍功半！

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